In the human body, Hormone is a chemical provided by the endocrine gland. These hormones circulate in the blood. They speed up or slow down or alter the activity of organs in some way. Hormones are the human body’s chemical messengers. They are often released into the bloodstream to send a signal to a different body part. Some of the hormones help in regulating body functions and help homeostasis.
Hormones regulate cellular synthesis and secretion of other hormones within the endocrine glands and neurons. Its products are enzymes, hydrochloric acid by gastric glands, and bile salts. Hormones don’t remain permanently in the blood. They are concurrently changed into inactive compounds by the lives and get eliminated by the kidneys.
Fact- The first hormone was discovered at University College London on 16 January 1902.
Role of Hormones in Human body:
Their main role is to communicate between cells that are located in distant parts of the body.
Hormones do two principal types of communication:
- First communication is between the two endocrine glands.
- Second communication is between an endocrine gland and a target organ.
Hormones can perform both of the above-mentioned actions on many different target organs simultaneously. They also affect the mucus production, peeling, plumage, pigmentation and colour change. Production and secretion of sweat, sebum and milk are always controlled by hormones.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone that is important for sexual and reproductive development. It is important in muscle and bone development, hair growth and development of sex organs such as penis and prostate. Originally made by testicles in men; women’s ovaries also make testosterone, though in much smaller quantities. The production of testosterone starts to increase significantly during puberty and begins to decline after age 30 or so.
According to the University of Rochester Medical Center, the standard range of testosterone for men is between 280 and 1,100 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL) for adult males, and between 15 and 70 ng/dL for adult females. A simple blood test can determine testosterone levels. There’s a wide range of normal or healthy levels of testosterone circulating in the bloodstream.
Moderately elevated testosterone levels in men tend to produce few noticeable symptoms. Boys with higher levels of testosterone may begin puberty earlier. Women with higher than normal testosterone may develop masculine features.
Testosterone helps maintain and develop:
- sexual features
- muscle mass
- adequate levels of RBCs
- Bone Density
- Sense of well-being
- Sexual and reproductive function.
Growth Hormone is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals. It is thus important in human development. It also stimulates the production of IGF-1 and improves the concentration of glucose and free fatty acids.
Growth is a very complex process and requires the coordinated action of several hormones. The major role of Growth Hormone (GH) in stimulating body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete Insulin Growth Factor (IGF-I). IGF-I stimulates proliferation of chondrocytes in cartilage cells resulting in bone growth. Growth hormone does seem to have a direct effect on bone growth in stimulating differentiation of chondrocytes.
Production of growth hormone is modulated by many factors, including stress, exercise, nutrition and sleep. However, its primary controllers are two hypothalamic hormones and one hormone from the stomach.
The role of growth hormone in normal ageing remains poorly understood, but some of the cosmetic symptoms of ageing appear to be amenable to growth hormone therapy. This is an active area of research, and additional information and recommendations about dangers and advantages will unquestionably surface in the near future.
Estrogens are hormones that are important for sexual and reproductive development, mainly in women. They are also referred to as ‘female sex hormones’. The term estrogen refers to all of the chemically similar hormones in this group, which are estrone, estradiol; primary in women of reproductive age) and estriol.
In women, estrogen is produced mainly in the ovaries. Ovaries are grape-sized glands located by the uterus and are part of the endocrine system. Estrogen is also composed of fat cells and adrenal gland. Estrogen plays an essential role in the growth of the female secondary sex characteristics, such as breasts, wider hips, pubic hair and armpit hair.
Functions Of Estrogen:
- Menstrual cycle: Estrogen also helps regulate the menstrual cycle, by controlling the growth of the uterine lining during the first part of the cycle. Menstruation begins when the woman’s egg is not fertilized and estrogen levels decrease sharply. If the egg is fertilized, estrogen works with another hormone progesterone to stop ovulation during pregnancy.
- According to John Hopkins Medicine, it even affects skin, hair, mucous membranes and the pelvic muscles.
- Estrogen also plays an immense role in blood clotting, maintaining the strength and thickness of the vaginal wall and the urethral lining, vaginal lubrication and a host of other bodily functions.
Sometimes hormones get out of balance. That can lead to diabetes, weight gain or loss, infertility, weak bones, and other health problems. If you have a hormone-related condition, the best thing to do is to talk to your doctor or an endocrinologist, a specialist in hormones on the TABIIB website or app.